Lexicon 2015

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The community lexicon -- an exercise in collaboratively creating useful knowledge

This lexicon is for listing and defining words and phrases from our texts and conversations that we want to know by the time we finish the course. The co-teaching teams take the lead each week by entering a set of words and phrases before, during, and immediately after our class meeting about each set of texts. Co-teaching team also creates two exemplary definitions within 24 hours of our class meeting. During the week between class meetings, it is up to all of us to fill out the lexicon by collectively editing this page. Add words, define words, correct, edit, expand definitions, add links. Organize the words by topical or alphabetic order. Format the entries. If each member of the Comm 182/282 2013 learning community contributes a small amount, in the aggregate our efforts will add up to something useful for all of us. It is natural to feel hesitant about editing the words of another learner. The media for collaborative asynchronous editing have not existed until recently, so the practices of collective composition have not been part of schooling. But the Web, Wikipedia, YouTube, and other platforms are strong signals that knowing how to instigate and participate in online social production is an increasingly important literacy

Roots and Visions 2015

Artifacts: Physical objects designed to provide for human comfort, for the manipulation of things or materials, and for the manipulation of symbols. Douglas Engelbart, when he first envisioned what we now know as personal computers, wrote about "humans using language, artifacts, methodology, and training." The artifact is the concrete, physical aspect of the system he envisioned.

Collective Consciousness:

Community: a feeling of fellowship with others, as a result of sharing common attitudes, interests, and goals.

Concept Manipulation:

Counterculture: term coined by Theodore Roszak; a way of life and set of attitudes opposed to or at variance with the prevailing social norm; in respect to the history of digital media and networks, Fred Turner wrote about "From Counterculture to Cyberculture" [1].

H-LAM/T System: Stands for "Human using Language, Artifacts, Methodology, in which he is Trained"; see entries for "artifact," "language," "methodology," "training."

Information Network:

Intelligence Amplification:The term "intelligence amplification" seems applicable to our goal of augmenting the human intellect in that the entity to be produced will exhibit more of what can be called intelligence than an unaided human could; we will have amplified the intelligence of the human by organizing his intellectual capabilities into higher levels of synergistic structuring.

Language: The way in which an individual communicates his concept of the world into the concepts that his mind uses to model that world, and the symbols that he attaches to those concepts and uses in consciously manipulating the concepts.

Manual, External, Symbol Manipulation:

Message Processing: Virtual connections between multi-access computers (the largest manifestation of the computer that any given user has access to; the outer layer of the "node") that allow for communication between different large computers, thus growing the network of computers and users for more global communication

Methodology: The methods, procedures, strategies, etc., with which an individual organizes his goal-centered activity.

Multiaccess Systems: Systems that allow access onto a shared database of information from multiple locations and consoles in order to facilitate communication across geographic space

New Communalist Movement:

OLIVER: "on-line interactive vicarious expediter and responder". Similar to Siri except with even more artificial intelligence to understand the personality of the online user. Takes care of small tasks for the user based on its "knowledge" of his or her personality. [INSTRUCTOR: When and where did this idea come from? Links?]

Peer-to-Peer Culture of the Internet: refers to the sharing culture of the internet in which users utilize each others' computers as servers, sharing files with each other without a central server. It also relates to the internet's inherently decentralized structure

Structure Types- General, Mental, Concept, Symbol, Physical, Inderdependence/Regeneration:

The Source of Intelligence:

Symbol Manipulation: When we temporarily disregard communicative speech and writing, and consider only the direct value to the individual of being able to do his heavy thinking by mentally manipulating symbols instead of the more unwieldy concepts which they represent. Consider, for instance, the mental difficulty involved in herding twenty- seven sheep if, instead of remembering one cardinal number and occasionally counting, we had to remember what each sheep looked like, so that if the flock seemed too small we could visualize each one and check whether or not it was there.

Trading Zones: science labs in which members develop "contact languages" to coordinate their activity within the lab. [INSTRUCTOR: What does this have to do with our subject matter?"]

Training: The conditioning needed by a person to bring his skills in using artifacts, language, and methodology to the point where they are operationally effective in the world. [INSTRUCTOR: What does this have to do with our subject matter?"]

Two-Domain System:fig1.gif

Virtual Community: WELL "recaptured the sense of cooperative spirit that so many people seemed to lose when we gained all this technology."

WELL: Online network forum based on the concept of the Whole Earth Catalog where "geographically dispersed individuals could build a sense of nonhierarchical, collaborative community around their interactions"; translated the countercultural vision of social technology into a resource for "imagining and managing life in the network economy" through computer-mediated communication.

Whole Earth Catalog: Publication first released in the sixties that presented reviews of hand tools, books, and magazines under thematic categories; is thought to have established a relationship between information technology, economic activity, and alternative forms of community; first tangible example of a network forum, connecting isolated members of the counterculture through electronic products; framework for the WELL.

Imagining Community

[INSTRUCTOR: I don't see any links here]

Community Liberated: Argues that community exists, but relations and ties are much weaker due to urbanization and mobility.

Community Lost: Idea that community is lost in urbanization. Relationships are now more impersonal and and fragmented.

Community Saved: Idea that community is not lost, and rather is still maintained and continue to play a supportive role in society.

Dual concept of morality

Ego-centered networks: a set of ties defined from the standpoint of the person at its center

Gemeinschaft: A community bonded by common experiences, values, and shared will. There is no need to enforce social control externally because of a collective sense of loyalty. Forms social solidarity that puts community above self.

Gesellschaft: Self-interest over communal interest. Emphasis on the individual and his or her achieved status (e.g. wealth, education, or job title). Self-interest can draw people together for business purposes. (INSTRUCTOR: This is incomplete! What modern institutions are gesellschaft and what makes them differ, what coheres them?]

Group: Groups are made up of several individual members or components. Often times, groups are more than just the sum of their individual parts. A "group essence" can emerge that is larger and more powerful than just the sum of individual bonds/ties.

Law:

From Ferdinand Townies Reading: There is, further, in the first instance a common and binding system of positive law, of enforcible norms regulating the interrelation of wills. It has its roots in family life and is based on land ownership. Its forms are in the main determined by the code of the folkways and mores. Religion consecrates and glorifies these forms of the divine will, i.e., as interpreted by the will of wise and ruling men. This system of norms is in direct contrast to a similar positive law which upholds the separate identity of the individual rational wills in all their interrelations and entanglements. The latter derives from the conventional order of trade and similar relations but attains validity and binding force only through the sovereign will and power of the state. Thus, it becomes one of the most important instruments of policy; it sustains, impedes, or furthers social trends; it is defended or contested publicly by doctrines and opinions and thus is changed, becoming more strict or more lenient.

There is, further, the dual concept of morality as a purely ideal or mental system of norms for community life. In the first case, it is mainly an expression and organ of religious beliefs and forces, by necessity intertwined with the conditions and realities of family spirit and the folkways and mores. In the second case, it is entirely a product and instrument of public opinion, which encompasses all relations arising out of contractual sociable ness, contacts, and political intentions.

Order is natural law, law as such = positive law, mores = ideal law. Law as the meaning of what may or ought to be, of what is ordained or permitted, constitutes an object of social will. Even the natural law, in order to attain validity and reality, has to be recognized as positive and binding. But it is positive in a more general or less definite way. It is general in comparison with special laws. It is simple compared to complex and developed law.

Loosely knitLoosely knit is the opposite of tightly knit. Tightly knit communities are characterized by close bonds, deep connections, and often times high levels of activity/participation. Loosely knit communities, on the other hand, are characterized by more distant bonds, shallower connections, and lower levels of activity/participation.

  • Natural law:

Network: As a group continues to evolve due to technology, the idea is that people are connected to others individually instead of through communities or groups. Concepts such as globalization and the networked individual develop, which describe this new web of interconnectedness that wouldn't be found in a close-knit family community.

Neutral ground: places where individuals may come and go as they please, in which none are required to play host, and in which all feel at home and comfortable.

  • Positive law:

Real community: any group united by interpersonal relationships where all members know and recognize others in an equal belonging that implies personal and collective rights.

Sparsely knit: Another word is "loosely knit,' and is the opposite of densely knit. This is a characteristic of a group that is more private, specialized, and fragmented.

Staatstum: the state

Third place: Taken from Oldenberg's "The Great Good Place," it is a separate community from work and family important in fostering happiness, relief, and community via neutral ground and social equality. Oldenberg argues that American culture doesn't place an important enough emphasis on third places, unlike some European cultures. [INSTRUCTOR: This is good.]

Tightly bounded: Another word is "tightly knit," and is the opposite of sparsely knit. This is a characteristic of a group that is more connected, central, and unified.

"Working in a fishbowl": description participants in open office plans used to describe their work in the group. Co-workers have full visual, aural and physical access to each other, as almost all communication is inward, within the fishbowl.

Volkstum: the people


Virtual Community and Real Life

Attention blindness: a phenomenon that occurs when one is so concentrated on one task that he/she misses everything else. The classic example is a video with the given task to count how many times students pass around a basketball, and while the viewer is so caught up in counting, entirely misses a gorilla walking through all the people in the video.

"Collaboration by difference": "Collaboration by difference" prevents possible attention blindness. With many individuals who have different skills, they are able to focus on different aspects of a project and thus eliminate space for blindness.

Crowdsourcing: Crowdsourcing refers to the idea of using crowds to collaboratively find solutions, compile data, or inspire changes, or accomplish tasks that a single individual would be incapable of completing on their own (entirely or in a timely fashion).

Second life: Henry Jenkins defines this as the virtual world. The First life is the real world, and Jenkins believes while the Second life is not completely disconnected from the real world, it allows for fresh perspectives.


Identity and Presentation of Self


Social Networks



Social Capital


Collective Action

Public Sphere